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The Single UNIX Specification Version 4 - Introduction
The Single UNIX Specification, Version 4
Extracted from the Authorized Guide to the Single UNIX Specification, Version 4
Many names have been applied to the work that has culminated in the Single UNIX Specification and the accompanying UNIX certification program. It began as the Common API Specification, became Spec 1170, and is now in its latest iteration the Single UNIX Specification, Version 4, published in a number of The Open Group Technical Standards, the core of which are also POSIX.1-2008.
The Single UNIX Specification uses The Open Group Base Specifications, Issue 7 documentation as its core. The documentation is structured as follows:
One thing that becomes apparent working with the Single UNIX Specification is its focus on application development. The Single UNIX Specification is similar to the User's and Programmer's Reference Manuals on Berkeley or System V systems. Matters of system management are not part of this specification. Directory organization is not discussed beyond the simple few directories and devices that applications generally use. User management discussions do not appear. There is no discussion of such files as /etc/passwd or /etc/groups, since an application's access to the information traditionally kept in these files is through programmatic interfaces such as getpwnam() and getgrnam(). Processes have appropriate privileges, and there is no concept of the ``superuser'' or ``root''.
There are now 1833 interfaces defined in the Single UNIX Specification, Version 4. The table below gives the breakdown for each volume of the Single UNIX Specification.
Formal Standards Alignment
The Single UNIX Specification supports formal standards developed for applications portability. The following source code portability standards lie at the core of the Single UNIX Specification:
The Single UNIX Specification fully aligns with these standards. The Single UNIX Specification functional extensions beyond the required POSIX base functionality are identified by the X/Open System Interfaces option, denoted XSI, and by mandating certain other POSIX options; for example, File Synchronization. Where there are multiple interfaces to accomplish some task, the standards-based interfaces are clearly identified as the preferred way of doing things to support future portability.
While great care has been taken to align the Single UNIX Specification with formal standards, it is still a superset specification that extends functionality or perhaps presents a more exact (and restrictive) definition. When this occurs, the text in the Single UNIX Specification is clearly marked by shading and a portability code appears in the margin (sometimes referred to as a margin code or option code). In this version, the number of portability codes has reduced, as the functionality associated with various old options has been mandated.
Programmers need to take care when using functionality that appears in a shaded area if they are developing applications that need to be maximally portable or portable beyond UNIX certified systems. For example, if functionality is marked with XSI in the margin, it will be available on all UNIX certified systems, but may not be available on systems only supporting the base POSIX.1 requirements. Alternatively, an application may depend on the exact format of output from a particular utility whose output format is incompletely specified, as indicated by shading and OF marked in the margin. It is likely that an application is developed with a particular platform, or at least a well-defined set of platforms in mind. These codes are exceptionally useful to warn a developer of areas of potential problems.
There are 45 margin codes defined in total in XBD, Section 2.1.6, Options. 40 of these reflect optional features defined within the POSIX base standard, six of which are mandatory in the Single UNIX Specification (FSC, TSA, TSH, TSS, UP, and XSI). One of the codes-MC1-is a shorthand notation for a permutation of certain options. Three of the codes are special codes to denote other portability warnings, these being OB (obsolescent), OH (optional header), and OF (output incompletely specified).
All the codes including those of the POSIX options are listed below together with an indication of their status within the Single UNIX Specification:
Where a portability code applies to an entire function or utility, the SYNOPSIS section of the corresponding reference page is shaded and marked with the margin code. Refer to XBD, Section 1.7, Portability for more information.
The Single UNIX Specification includes a set of profiling options, allowing larger profiles of the options of the Base standard. The Option Groups within the Single UNIX Specification are defined within XBD, Section 188.8.131.52, XSI Option Groups.
The Single UNIX Specification contains the following Option Groups:
Common Directories and Devices
The Single UNIX Specification describes an applications portability environment, and as such defines a certain minimal set of directories and devices that applications regularly use. The following directories are defined:
The directory structure does not cross into such system management issues as where user accounts are organized or software packages are installed. Refer to XBD, Section 10.1, Directory Structure and Files for more information.
XBD, Chapter 10, Directory Structure and Devices also defines the mapping of <control>- char sequences to control character values, and associated requirements on system documentation.
When a program begins, an environment is made available to it. The environment consists of strings of the form name=value, where name is the name associated with the environment variable, and its value is represented by the characters in value. UNIX systems traditionally pass information to programs through the environment variable mechanism. The Single UNIX Specification uses only uppercase characters, digits, and underscores to name environment variables, reserving for applications the name space of names containing lowercase characters.
A number of utilities and functions defined in the Single UNIX Specification use environment variables to modify their behavior. The ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES section of a utility's reference page describes any appropriate environment variables. Quite a number of environment variables (listed below) modify the behavior of more than a single utility.
YACC Grammars as Specifications
The Single UNIX Specification describes certain functionality and
``little'' languages with
These grammars are representations of the languages they describe, and a number of caveats apply:
Refer to XCU, Chapter 1 for more information.
Both Basic Regular Expressions (BREs) and Extended Regular Expressions (EREs) are described in XBD, Chapter 9, Regular Expressions and all of the utilities and interfaces that use regular expressions refer back to this definition.
Basic regular expressions:
Extended regular expressions:
The functions regcomp() and regexec() in XSH, Chapter 3, System Interfaces implement regular expressions as defined in the Single UNIX Specification.
The Single UNIX Specification describes the interaction of symbolic
links that may effect the file access in the file system. The behavior
of symbolic links is fully specified with respect to their creation and
use through the relevant XSH interfaces, such as
The Single UNIX Specification and UNIX certified systems are tools for developing portable applications and for porting existing applications that were originally developed to run on UNIX systems. XSH defines the C-language programming environment, and the syntax and semantics of the interfaces. Feature test macros, name space issues, and the program interaction with the operating system are all described in the opening chapters of XSH. The following introductions to these topics include references and additional explanations to orient an application developer with the information presented in XSH.
The programming interfaces in XSH are described in C-language syntax, as defined in the ISO C standard, and presume a C-language compilation environment. (Implementations may make the functionality available through other programming languages, but this is not covered by the Single UNIX Specification.)
For an implementation to be a conforming UNIX certified system, it must support the ISO C standard. Implementations may additionally support the X/Open Common Usage C dialect as a migration strategy from previous XPG3 environments. X/Open Common Usage C is defined in Programming Languages, Issue 3, Chapters 1-4, and essentially refers to the C Language before the 1989 ANSI C standard.
Feature Test Macros and Name Space Issues
There are a number of tasks that must be done to effectively make the
interface environment available to a program. One or more C-language
macros, referred to as feature test macros, must be defined before
any headers are included. These macros might more accurately be referred
to as header configuration macros, as they control what symbols will
be exposed by the headers. The macro _XOPEN_SOURCE must be defined
to a value of 700 to make available the functionality of the Single
UNIX Specification, Version 4. With respect to POSIX base functionality
covered by the Single UNIX Specification, this is equivalent to defining
the macro _POSIX_C_SOURCE to be 200809L.
Use of the _XOPEN_SOURCE macro should not be confused with indicator macros associated with options and Option Groups, such as _XOPEN_UNIX, which are defined by the implementation in <unistd.h>.
In the first case (feature test macro _XOPEN_SOURCE defined by the
The UNIX system name space is well defined. All identifiers defined in the Single UNIX Specification appear in the headers described in XBD, Chapter 13, Headers (with the exception of environ). Tables in XSH, Section 2.2, The Compilation Environment clearly describe which identifier prefixes and suffixes are reserved for the implementation, which identifier macro prefixes may be used by the application programmer providing appropriate #undef statements are used to prevent conflicts, and which identifiers are reserved for external linkage.
Each interface reference page lists in the ERRORS section possible error returns that may be tested either in errno or in the function return value upon the unsuccessful completion of a function call. Each error return has a symbolic name (defined as a manifest constant in <errno.h>) which should always be used by the portable application, as the actual error values are unspecified. All of the error names are listed in XSH, Section 2.3, Error Numbers along with additional relevant information.
function defined by the ISO C standard has shortcomings that make it unreliable
for many application uses on some implementations. The Single UNIX
Specification defines a reliable signal mechanism which applications
should use instead. XSH, Section 2.4, Signal Concepts discusses signal
generation and delivery, signal actions, async-signal-safe functions,
and interruption of functions by signals.
Standard I/O Streams
When a program starts, it has three I/O streams associated with it, namely standard input (for reading conventional input), standard output (for writing conventional output), and standard error (for writing diagnostic output). These streams are already open for the process, and ready for I/O.
The mechanics of stream I/O, buffering, relationships to file descriptors, and inheritance across process creation are all discussed in XSH, Section 2.5, Standard I/O Streams. New in this version of the Single UNIX Specification are facilities for associating a standard I/O stream with a memory buffer instead of a file.
STREAMS is a method of implementing network services and other character-based input/output mechanisms, with the STREAM being a full-duplex connection between a process and a device. STREAMS provides direct access to protocol modules, and optional protocol modules can be interposed between the process-end of the STREAM and the device-driver at the device-end of the STREAM. Pipes can be implemented using the STREAMS mechanism, so they can provide process-to-process as well as process-to-device communications.
XSH, Section 2.6, STREAMS introduces STREAMS I/O, the message types used to control them, an overview of the priority mechanism, and the interfaces used to access them. In this version of the specification, STREAMS functionality has been marked obsolescent.
XSI Interprocess Communication
The Single UNIX Specification describes a set of interprocess communications (IPC) primitives, namely message queues, semaphores, and shared memory. These functions are all derived from the SVID.
General information that is shared by all three mechanisms is described in XSH, Section 2.7, XSI Interprocess Communication. There, the common permissions mechanism is briefly introduced, describing the mode bits and how they are used to determine whether or not a process has access to read or write/alter the appropriate instance of one of the IPC mechanisms. All other relevant information is contained in the reference pages themselves.
The Single UNIX Specification includes realtime functionality to support the source portability of applications with realtime requirements. Realtime is discussed in XSH, Section 2.8, Realtime. This section includes an overview of the functional areas: semaphores, process memory locking, memory mapped files and shared memory objects, priority scheduling, realtime signals, timers, interprocess communication, synchronous input/output, and asynchronous input/output.
XSH describes functionality to support multiple flows of control, called threads, within a process. Threads are discussed in XSH, Section 2.9, Threads, which includes an overview of the supported interfaces, threads implementation models, thread mutexes, thread attributes, thread scheduling, thread cancelation, thread read-write locks, and application-managed thread stacks.
UNIX certified systems support UNIX domain sockets for process-to-process
communication in a single system and network sockets using Internet
protocols based on IPv4, and may also support raw sockets and network
sockets using Internet protocols based on IPv6.
XSH Section 2.10, Sockets, discusses all aspects of UNIX domain sockets and network sockets, including socket types, addressing, protocols, and socket options.
General Terminal Interface
The general terminal interface is described in the Single UNIX Specification in XBD, Chapter 11, General Terminal Interface, providing a mechanism to control asynchronous communications ports. It is left to implementations as to whether or not they support network connections and synchronous communications ports.
While all of the interface details are contained in XSH, the mechanics of the terminal interface with respect to process groups, controlling terminals, input and output processing, input, output, and control modes, and special characters are described in XBD, Chapter 11, General Terminal Interface.
This interface should not be confused with the X/Open Curses interface that provides a terminal-independent way to update character screens.
How to Read an XSH Reference Page
Each reference page in XSH has a common layout of sections describing the interface. (Function interface descriptions in X/Open Curses follow the same layout.) This layout is similar to the manual page or ``man'' page format shipped with most UNIX systems, and each interface has SYNOPSIS, DESCRIPTION, RETURN VALUE, and ERRORS sections. These are the four sections that relate to conformance.
Additional sections contain considerable extra information for the application developer. The EXAMPLES sections provide source code examples of how to use certain interfaces. The APPLICATION USAGE sections provide additional caveats, issues, and recommendations to the developer. The SEE ALSO sections contain useful pointers to related interfaces and headers that a developer may wish to also read.
The FUTURE DIRECTIONS sections act as pointers to related work that may impact on the interface in the future, and often cautions the developer to architect the code to account for a change in this area. (A FUTURE DIRECTIONS section expresses current thinking and should not be considered a commitment to adopt the feature or interface in the future.)
The RATIONALE sections include historical information about an interface and why features were included or discarded in the definition.
The CHANGE HISTORY sections describe when the interface was introduced, and how it has changed. This information can be useful when porting existing applications that may reflect earlier implementations of the interface.
Option Group labels in the reference page headers, and portability shading and margin marks are features already described in this document; they appear on the reference pages to guide an application developer when deciding how best an interface should be used. Refer to XSH, Section 1.2, Format of Entries for information on the exact layout.
Commands and Utilities Environment
The Single UNIX Specification describes 174 utilities supported on UNIX certified systems. These utilities provide a rich environment for building shell script applications, supporting program development (the C Language in particular), and providing a user portability environment.
The shell command language, symbolic links, file format notation, utility reference page layouts, and guidelines, are all introduced in this section. The following introductions to these topics include references and additional explanations to orient an application developer with the information presented in XCU.
Shell Command Language
The shell is a powerful and flexible programming language. A considerable number of utilities on early UNIX systems were actually shell programs.
The Single UNIX Specification shell is the standard POSIX shell. This shell is for the most part based on the Bourne shell with features from the KornShell, ksh.
The shell command language is defined in its entirety in XCU, Chapter 2, Shell Command Language. This is a very strict definition of the shell. Token recognition, word expansions, simple and compound commands, the shell grammar, the execution environment, and special built-ins are a few of the topics covered. It is not a guide to writing or porting shell scripts.
The Single UNIX Specification includes support for symbolic links in the file system. The programmatic interfaces that manipulate symbolic links (or symlinks) are all well defined in XSH and XCU, and symlink concepts with respect to issues like pathname resolution are discussed in XBD, Chapter 4, General Concepts. A UNIX certified system supports symlinks, and application programs may make use of them.
File Format Notation
Sections in the utility reference pages often require the expected input used by the utility or output it generates to be described. Additionally, information files used or created sometimes require description. The method used throughout XCU is a format description plus its arguments, similar to that used by the printf() function. These file format specifications are presented as:
"<format>"[ ,<arg1>, <arg2>, ..., <argn>]
The format specifier contains the format string a programmer might use to write the data. The specifiers should not be considered format strings that could be directly used in a call to scanf(). The conversion specifications in the format string are what would be expected by a developer familiar with the printf() interface. Refer to XBD, Chapter 5, File Format Notation for more information.
How to Read an XCU Reference Page
Each reference page in XCU has a common layout of sections describing the interface. This layout, while similar to the manual page or ``man'' page format shipped with most UNIX systems, offers a more detailed view of the utility's description.
As well as the SYNOPSIS and DESCRIPTION sections, each interface has OPTIONS, OPERANDS, STDIN (standard input format), INPUT FILES, ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES, ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS (what signals are caught and the consequence of receiving signals), STDOUT (standard output format), STDERR, and OUTPUT FILES sections.
An EXTENDED DESCRIPTION will be used if the utility has a particularly
long description; for example, if it supports its own language (
Utilities generally return 0 upon successful completion, and a failed status as greater than 0. The EXIT STATUS sections specify this, but will also describe if particular values are returned in certain circumstances. In general, an application should be written to test for successful completion, rather than specific error returns.
The CONSEQUENCE OF ERRORS section describes what happens to such items as open files, process state, and the environment, should errors occur.
As with the XSH reference pages, additional sections contain considerable extra information for the application developer, and include EXAMPLES, APPLICATION USAGE, FUTURE DIRECTIONS, RATIONALE, SEE ALSO, and CHANGE HISTORY sections. The defaults for these sections, and additional detail about what each section specifies, are covered in XCU, Section 1.4, Utility Description Defaults.
Terminal Interfaces Environment
The Single UNIX Specification includes X/Open Curses. These interfaces provide a terminal-independent character screen update method. The functionality includes:
New interfaces over Issue 3 are marked with ENHANCED CURSES in the
Applications using the interfaces from X/Open Curses need to define the
_XOPEN_SOURCE macro to be 700 prior to including
On UNIX certified systems, the c99 compiler recognizes the additional curses library option-argument for the -l option.
There are four X/Open Curses utilities- infocmp, tic, tput, and untic- which are new in this version of the Single UNIX Specification.
There is a rich set of interfaces in the Single UNIX Specification to
support internationalized applications development. Internationalization
refers to developing an application without prior knowledge of the
language, cultural information, or character set encoding scheme that
will be used in the run-time environment. The application responds
accordingly at run time for cultural or locale-specific conditions. The
term ``internationalization'' is often shortened to simply ``I18N'',
Localization is the process of establishing a base of cultural and codeset data on a system such that it can be accessed. It is the method by which locales are created in such a way that internationalized programs can access the relevant information.
There are a number of factors that need to be considered when structuring an application to support multiple cultures:
All of these requirements are met in the Single UNIX
Specification. Utilities exist to support the definition and display of
Much of the I18N information is spread throughout the Single UNIX Specification, with specific interface and utility descriptions appearing in XSH and XCU, respectively. Introductions to character and codeset issues and the locale definition language appear in XBD, Chapter 6, Character Set, and Chapter 7, Locale, respectively.